# orbital velocity

## orbital velocity

noun
the minimum velocity at which a body must move to maintain a given orbit.
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World English Dictionary
 orbital velocity —n the velocity required by a spacecraft, satellite, etc, to enter and maintain a given orbit

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Encyclopedia Britannica
Encyclopedia

orbital velocity

velocity sufficient to cause a natural or artificial satellite to remain in orbit. Inertia of the moving body tends to make it move on in a straight line, while gravitational force tends to pull it down. The orbital path, elliptical or circular, thus represents a balance between gravity and inertia. A cannon fired from a mountaintop will throw a projectile farther if its muzzle velocity is increased. If velocity is made high enough the projectile never falls to the ground. The surface of the Earth may be thought of as curving away from the projectile, or satellite, as fast as the latter falls toward it. The more massive the body at the centre of attraction, the higher is the orbital velocity for a particular altitude or distance. Near the surface of the Earth, if air resistance could be disregarded, orbital velocity would be about eight kilometres (five miles) per second. The farther from the centre of attraction a satellite is, the weaker the gravitational force and the less velocity it needs to remain in orbit. See also escape velocity.

Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
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Example sentences
Solar radiation bombarding the particles causes them to lose orbital velocity and eventually fall into the nearest planet.
Solar sails can be used to increase orbital velocity, and spiral out from the sun.
The rotation curve, a plot of orbital velocity versus distance, then remains nearly flat to the edge of the visible galaxy.
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