rain, snow, or other precipitation produced when moist air is lifted as it moves over a mountain range. As the air rises and cools, orographic clouds form and serve as the source of the precipitation, most of which falls upwind of the mountain ridge. Some also falls a short distance downwind of the ridge and is sometimes called spillover. On the lee side of the mountain range, rainfall is usually low, and the area is said to be in a rain shadow. Very heavy precipitation typically occurs upwind of a prominent mountain range that is oriented across a prevailing wind from a warm ocean.
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