outlier

[out-lahy-er]
noun
1.
something that lies outside the main body or group that it is a part of, as a cow far from the rest of the herd, or a distant island belonging to a cluster of islands: The mail, along with eagerly awaited “special orders,” was delivered to the outliers weekly, thanks to Cap'n George and his trusty steamboat.
2.
someone who stands apart from others of his or her group, as by differing actions, beliefs, religious practices, etc.: an outlier among Muslims; an outlier among conservatives. outsider, nonconformist, maverick; original, eccentric, bohemian; dissident, dissenter, iconoclast, heretic.
3.
Statistics.
a.
an observation that is well outside of the expected range of values in a study or experiment, and which is often discarded from the data set: Experience with a variety of data-reduction problems has led to several strategies for dealing with outliers in data sets.
b.
a person whose abilities, achievements, etc., lie outside the range of statistical probability.
4.
Geology. a part of a formation left detached through the removal of surrounding parts by erosion. Compare inlier.
5.
Obsolete. a person residing outside the place of his or her business, duty, etc.

Origin:
1600–10; out- + lier

Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
outlier (ˈaʊtˌlaɪə)
 
n
1.  an outcrop of rocks that is entirely surrounded by older rocks
2.  a person, thing, or part situated away from a main or related body
3.  a person who lives away from his place of work, duty, etc
4.  statistics See scatter diagram a point in a sample widely separated from the main cluster of points in the sample

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

outlier
c.1600, stone quarried ans removed but left unused, from out + lie (v.2). Transf. meaning "outsider" is recorded from 1680s; "anything detached from its main body" is from 1849; geological sense is from 1833.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
In theory, an outlier is something that is so unlikely that it is thought to be
  unrepresentative of the rest of the sample.
The normal outcome is the province of science, which does not overlap with the
  miraculous, which it might call an outlier.
And that would certainly provide evidence that we're an outlier and therefore
  there must be more universes.
In my experience, when it comes to home media centers, there are two main camps
  and an outlier.
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