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segment of the central highlands of the island of New Guinea, Papua New Guinea, southwestern Pacific Ocean. The range occupies the southeastern "tail" of the island, rising abruptly from the coastal plain to a height of 9,000 feet (2,750 metres), and extends for 200 miles (300 km). It varies in width from 25 to 70 miles (40 to 115 km), and its highest point is Mount Victoria (13,240 feet [4,040 metres]). Rainfall on the forested slopes gives rise to several rivers, including the Kemp Welch and Mambare (flowing south) and the Musa (north). The range is named after British Capt. Owen Stanley, who explored the coast of New Guinea from 1845 to 1850. In an attempt to capture Port Moresby, in 1942 Japanese forces began an overland crossing of the range via the Kokoda Trail, a narrow and difficult footpath that cuts through the steep, heavily forested terrain of the range for about 55 miles (90 km). The Japanese were met on the trail by Allied (primarily Australian) troops and, after a prolonged fight ending some 30 miles (50 km) northeast of Port Moresby, had to concede their first land defeat of World War II. The trail has become a tourist pilgrimage, especially for Australians, because of its pivotal role in the battle for the Pacific