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city, Toscana (Tuscany) regione, central Italy, on the southern slope of San Egidio Hill just north of Lake Trasimeno. The Roman Corito, it was probably of Umbrian origin but was later an important Etruscan magisterial centre. It emerged from a long period of obscurity in 1202 as a free commune. Sacked by the forces of nearby Arezzo city in 1258, Cortona recovered and had its own mint and became an episcopal see in 1325. After a long period of peace, it was besieged in 1529 by the armies of Pope Clement VII and the emperor Charles V; thereafter, it was joined to the grand duchy of Tuscany.