title of a man of high rank or office in the Ottoman Empire and North Africa. It was the highest official title of honour in the Ottoman Empire, always used with a proper name, which it followed. It was given to soldiers and high civil officials, not to men of religion, and was purely personal and not hereditary, except in 19th-century Egypt. Very occasionally in early times it was applied to a woman; Validepasha was the title of the mother of the pasha of Egypt.
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|a screen or mat covered with a dark material for shielding a camera lens from excess light or glare.|
|the offspring of a zebra and a donkey.|