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city, capital of Narino department, southwestern Colombia, situated 8,291 feet (2,527 m) above sea level at the base of Galeras Volcano (14,029 feet [4,276 m]). Founded in 1539, Pasto was a royalist stronghold during the revolution against Spain. Although now less important as a trade centre than it was in the colonial era, Pasto controls traffic between Ecuador and the Cauca Valley and is the commercial centre for the surrounding agricultural and gold-mining area. The University of Narino grew from a school established in Pasto in 1827 (university status, 1964). The city lies on the Pan-American Highway, 76 miles (122 km) from the Ecuadoran border, and is linked by road with the Pacific port of Tumaco. The area for which Pasto is an urban centre contains a large Indian population. Pop. (2007 est.) 321,435.