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Denotation vs. Connotation

perfume

[n. pur-fyoom, per-fyoom; v. per-fyoom, pur-fyoom] /n. ˈpɜr fyum, pərˈfyum; v. pərˈfyum, ˈpɜr fyum/
noun
1.
a substance, extract, or preparation for diffusing or imparting an agreeable or attractive smell, especially a fluid containing fragrant natural oils extracted from flowers, woods, etc., or similar synthetic oils.
2.
the scent, odor, or volatile particles emitted by substances that smell agreeable.
verb (used with object), perfumed, perfuming.
3.
(of substances, flowers, etc.) to impart a pleasant fragrance to.
4.
to impregnate with a sweet odor; scent.
Origin of perfume
obsolete Italian
1525-1535
1525-35; earlier parfume (noun) < Middle French parfum, noun derivative of parfumer (v.) < obsolete Italian parfumare (modern profumare). See per-, fume
Related forms
perfumeless, adjective
perfumy, adjective
unperfumed, adjective
Synonyms
1. essence, attar, scent; incense. 2. Perfume, aroma, fragrance all refer to agreeable odors. Perfume often indicates a strong, rich smell, natural or manufactured: the perfume of flowers. Fragrance is usually applied to fresh, delicate, and delicious odors, especially from growing things: fragrance of new-mown hay. Aroma is restricted to a somewhat spicy smell: the aroma of coffee.
Antonyms
2. stench.
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2015.
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Examples from the Web for perfumes
Contemporary Examples
Historical Examples
  • He conceived it as a lying on couches amid cushions, sniffing Orient perfumes in scent-bottles.

    Musical Portraits Paul Rosenfeld
  • But the odors of her perfumes were so sweet, that he forgot what he had thought to do.

    Welsh Fairy Tales William Elliott Griffis
  • The earth steamed and sweltered, and the perfumes of tropical blossoms stole out of the jungle and exhaled a heavy languor.

    Caravans By Night Harry Hervey
  • Jewels fit for an emperor, perfumes like a very grove of camphire.

    Two Penniless Princesses Charlotte M. Yonge
  • The French shepherds, during the time of the Crusades, were observed to use these perfumes.

  • His room, was fragrant with the perfumes of his pomatums and scents.

    The Memoires of Casanova, Complete Jacques Casanova de Seingalt
  • Go in with us; don't potter with pomatum and perfumes,—rubbish!

British Dictionary definitions for perfumes

perfume

noun (ˈpɜːfjuːm)
1.
a mixture of alcohol and fragrant essential oils extracted from flowers, spices, etc, or made synthetically, used esp to impart a pleasant long-lasting scent to the body, stationery, etc See also cologne, toilet water
2.
a scent or odour, esp a fragrant one
verb (pəˈfjuːm)
3.
(transitive) to impart a perfume to
Word Origin
C16: from French parfum, probably from Old Provençal perfum, from perfumar to make scented, from per through (from Latin) + fumar to smoke, from Latin fumāre to smoke
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for perfumes

perfume

n.

1530s, "fumes from a burning substance," from Middle French parfum (16c.), from parfumer "to scent," from Old Provençal perfumar or cognate words in dialectal Italian (perfumare) or Spanish (perfumar), from Latin per- "through" (see per) + fumare "to smoke" (see fume (n.)). Meaning "fluid containing agreeable essences of flowers, etc.," is attested from 1540s.

v.

1530s, "to fill with smoke or vapor," from perfume (n.) or from Middle French parfumer. Meaning "to impart a sweet scent to" is from 1530s. Related: Perfumed; perfuming.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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perfumes in the Bible

were used in religious worship, and for personal and domestic enjoyment (Ex. 30:35-37; Prov. 7:17; Cant. 3:6; Isa. 57:9); and also in embalming the dead, and in other funeral ceremonies (Mark 14:8; Luke 24:1; John 19:39).

Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary
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15
18
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