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city, west-central Israel, on the Plain of Sharon, east-northeast of Tel Aviv-Yafo and part of that city's metropolitan area. Situated in the valley of Achor near the Yarqon River, the city takes its name (meaning "Door of Hope") from the biblical allusion in Hosea 2:15: " . . . and make the valley of Achor a door of hope." Petah Tiqwa was the first village (founded 1878) in the modern Jewish settlement of Palestine and is known as Em ha-Moshavot (Hebrew: "Mother of Villages"). Because the village was founded in a swampy, malarial area, the first years of settlement were unstable and dangerous. Settlers first planted eucalyptus trees for drainage, then turned to truck and citrus farming; the first orange groves in modern Palestine were also planted in the village. With the growth of Tel Aviv, much of the agricultural land was converted to suburban residential and industrial use. Petah Tiqwa was incorporated as a city in 1939. Industries include the production of canned fruits, oils and soaps, textiles, and agricultural machinery.