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city, Baden-Wurttemberg Land (state), southwestern Germany. It lies on the northern edge of the Black Forest (Schwarzwald), where the Nagold and Wurm rivers join the Enz, northwest of Stuttgart. Originally the site of a Roman settlement (Porta Hercyniae), it was chartered about 1195. The city was at times the residence of the margraves of Baden-Baden and Baden-Durlach, and the humanist Johannes Reuchlin was born there in 1455. The medieval Latin school in Pforzheim was famous. The city was sacked during the Thirty Years' War (1618-48) and the War of the Grand Alliance (1689-97) and was virtually destroyed during World War II. It was rebuilt with broad thoroughfares and open spaces along the rivers. Pforzheim has been the centre of the German jewelry, watch, and clock industry since the 18th century. Manufactures also include machinery, electrical and medical equipment, and motor-vehicle parts. Notable buildings include the castle-church of St. Michael (13th-15th century), the Franciscan Barfusserkirche ("Church of Barefoot Friars"; 13th century), and the modern Reuchlin House (containing both history and jewelry museums). Other points of interest are a minerals museum, a wildlife park, and an Alpine garden featuring more than 100,000 plants. Pop. (2003 est.) 119,046.