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Persian soldier and statesman who was the hereditary satrap (provincial governor) of Dascylium under Darius II and Artaxerxes II. Pharnabazus was an outstanding military and naval commander in Persia's wars against Athens and Sparta. In the war with Athens, beginning in 413 BC, he supported Spartan operations in the Hellespont. When war broke out with Sparta in 400 BC, he persuaded Artaxerxes to organize a naval counterstroke, and in 394 the Persian navy, jointly commanded by Pharnabazus and the Athenian admiral Conon, completely destroyed the Spartan fleet off Cnidus and gained the mastery of the Aegean. When in 388 the revival of Athenian imperialist ambitions led Artaxerxes to enter into an alliance with Sparta, Pharnabazus, as the chief opponent of Sparta, was recalled with honour from his command. In 385 and 373 he commanded unsuccessful invasions of Egypt.