But the role of the Vatican under the last two popes called pius lodges deep in that responsibility.
The Vatican maintains that pius worked behind the scenes to save victims of the Holocaust.
Despite charges brought against him by some of his fiercest critics, pius XII was no war criminal, and no friend to Hitler.
In 1814, Pope pius VII restored the Jesuits—but not all countries followed suit.
Kertzer credits John Paul II with opening the files on the pius XI papacy, in 2002, which made him decide to embark upon the book.
pius again laboured to infuse his own spirit into the monarchs of Christendom.
Tzankoff and various other people went to Rome, where pius ix.
When Philip doubted how to deal with the troubles in the Netherlands, pius bade him deal with them by force of arms.
One of the most remarkable of those efforts was made by pius IV.
Invocat Immaculat, pius Nonus pastor bonus, per concilium fert auxilium.