the brightest star that appears nearest to either celestial pole at any particular time. Owing to the precession of the equinoxes, the position of each pole describes a small circle in the sky over a period of 25,800 years. Each of a succession of stars has thus passed near enough to the north celestial pole to serve as the polestar. At present the polestar is Polaris; Thuban (alpha Draconis) was closest to the North Pole about 2700 BC, and the bright star Vega (alpha Lyrae) will be the star closest to the pole in AD 14000. The location of the northern polestar has made it a convenient object for navigators to use in determining latitude and north-south direction in the Northern Hemisphere. There is no bright star near the south celestial pole; the present southern polestar, sigma Octantis, is only of the 5th magnitude
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