the practice or condition of having more than one spouse, especially wife, at one time. Compare bigamy ( def 1 ), monogamy ( def 1 ).
Zoology. the habit or system of mating with more than one individual, either simultaneously or successively.

1585–95; < Greek polygamía. See poly-, -gamy

bigamy, polyandry, polygamy, polygyny.
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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
polygamy (pəˈlɪɡəmɪ)
1.  polyandry Compare polygyny the practice of having more than one wife or husband at the same time
2.  a.  the condition of having male, female, and hermaphrodite flowers on the same plant
 b.  the condition of having these different types of flower on separate plants of the same species
3.  the practice in male animals of having more than one mate during one breeding season
[C16: via French from Greek polugamia from poly- + -gamy]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Word Origin & History

1591, from L.L. polygamia, from Late Gk. polygamia "polygamy," from polygamos "often married," from polys "many" + gamos "marriage" (see gamete). Not etymologically restricted to marriage of one man and multiple women (technically polygyny), but often used as if it were.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary
polygamy [(puh-lig-uh-mee)]

The practice of having several wives or husbands at the same time. (Compare monogamy.)

The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
Although monogamy was the norm, marriage variants such as sororal polygamy and
  polyandry were present.
The local population has heard every joke and jab about polygamy that you can
  think of.
The opposite of polygamy is polyandry, when a woman has multiple husbands.
The women seemed to be well treated, although polygamy is practised.
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