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kotamadya (municipality) and capital, West Kalimantan propinsi (province), Borneo, Indonesia. It lies just inland from the western coast on the Kapuas River. Founded in 1772, the city was formerly the capital of the sultanate of Pontianak, a trading station that later became the chief gold city of Borneo. Houses are built on piles to avoid the regular flooding of the river; the hinterland is tropical forest and swampland, and the area is one of great humidity. A major industry is shipbuilding, and palm oil, rubber, and sugar are processed. Other products of the region include pepper, rice, corn (maize), cassava, and tobacco. Air service is from nearby Supadio airport. Pop. (2005) 501,843.