population explosion

noun
the rapid increase in numbers of a particular species, especially in the world's human population since the end of World War II, attributed to an accelerating birthrate, a decrease in infant mortality, and an increase in life expectancy.

Origin:
1950–55, Americanism

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World English Dictionary
population explosion
 
n
a rapid increase in the size of a population caused by such factors as a sudden decline in infant mortality or an increase in life expectancy

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Example sentences
It also no doubt helped facilitate the population explosion of the past century.
The result has been a consumer credit explosion that makes the population
  explosion seem small by comparison.
We are no more distressed at their proliferation than an owl is at a population
  explosion among field mice.
Butler says the study uncovered several possible factors behind the population
  explosion.
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