hydraulichydraulic cement discovered by the Romans and still used in some countries, made by grinding pozzolana (a type of slag that may be either natural-i.e., volcanic-or artificial, from a blast furnace) with powdered hydrated lime. Roman engineers used two parts by weight of pozzolana mixed with one part of lime to give strength to mortar and concrete in bridges and other masonry and brickwork. During the 3rd century BC, the Romans used pozzolana instead of sand in concrete and mortared rubblework, giving extraordinary strength. Used with an aggregate of broken tuff, travertine, brick, or marble, the material contributed to the evolution of new architectural forms in such monumental constructions as the Pantheon and the Baths of Caracalla at Rome
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