pre-dutch

Dutch

[duhch]
adjective
1.
of, pertaining to, or characteristic of the natives or inhabitants of the Netherlands or their country or language.
2.
pertaining to or designating the style of painting and subject matter developed in the Netherlands during the 17th century, chiefly characterized by the use of chiaroscuro, muted tones, naturalistic colors or forms, and of genre, landscape, or still-life subjects drawn from contemporary urban and rural life.
3.
of, pertaining to, or characteristic of the Pennsylvania Dutch.
4.
Archaic. German; Teutonic.
noun
5.
the people of the Netherlands and their immediate descendants elsewhere, collectively.
7.
Also called Netherlandic. the Germanic language of the Netherlands and northern Belgium. Abbreviation: D Compare Flemish.
8.
Obsolete. the German language.
Idioms
9.
go Dutch, Sometimes Offensive. to have each person pay his or her own expenses: a dinner where everyone goes Dutch. Also, go dutch.
10.
in Dutch, Sometimes Offensive. in trouble or disfavor (with someone): in Dutch with the teacher for disturbing the class.

Origin:
1350–1400; Middle English Duch < Middle Dutch duutsch Dutch, German(ic); cognate with Old High German diutisc popular (language) (as opposed to learned Latin), translation of Latin (lingua) vulgāris popular (language)

pre-Dutch, adjective
pseudo-Dutch, adjective


The idioms go Dutch (related to Dutch treat) and in Dutch (which uses Dutch to mean “trouble”) are both sometimes perceived as insulting to or by the Dutch. In addition, the adjective Dutch is found in a few other set phrases (Dutch courage, Dutch gold, and Dutch uncle) in which it implies that something Dutch is not authentic. Although insulting a particular person or nationality may be unintentional, it is best to be aware that use of these terms is sometimes perceived as offensive to or by the Dutch.
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Collins
World English Dictionary
dutch (dʌtʃ)
 
n
slang (Cockney) wife
 
[C19: short for duchess]

Dutch (dʌtʃ)
 
n
1.  Flemish See also Afrikaans the language of the Netherlands, belonging to the West Germanic branch of the Indo-European family and quite closely related to German and English
2.  (functioning as plural) the Dutch the natives, citizens, or inhabitants of the Netherlands
3.  See Pennsylvania Dutch
4.  See double Dutch
5.  slang in Dutch in trouble
 
adj
6.  of, relating to, or characteristic of the Netherlands, its inhabitants, or their language
 
adv
7.  informal go Dutch to share expenses equally

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

Dutch
c.1380, used first of Germans generally, after c.1600 of Hollanders, from M.Du. duutsch, from O.H.G. duit-isc, corresponding to O.E. þeodisc "belonging to the people," used especially of the common language of Germanic people, from þeod "people, race, nation," from P.Gmc. *theudo "popular,
national" (see Teutonic), from PIE base *teuta- "people" (cf. O.Ir. tuoth "people," O.Lith. tauta "people," O.Prus. tauto "country," Oscan touto "community"). As a language name, first recorded as L. theodice, 786 C.E. in correspondence between Charlemagne's court and the Pope, in reference to a synodical conference in Mercia; thus it refers to Old English. First reference to the German language (as opposed to a Germanic one) is two years later. The sense was extended from the language to the people who spoke it (in Ger., Diutisklant, ancestor of Deutschland, was in use by 13c.). Sense narrowed to "of the Netherlands" in 17c., after they became a united, independent state and the focus of English attention and rivalry. In Holland, duitsch is used of the people of Germany. The M.E. sense survives in Pennsylvania Dutch, who immigrated from the Rhineland and Switzerland. Since 1608, Dutch (adj.) has been a "pejorative label pinned by English speakers on almost anything they regard as inferior, irregular, or contrary to 'normal' (i.e., their own) practice" [Rawson]. E.g. Dutch treat (1887), Dutch uncle (1838), etc. -- probably exceeded in such usage only by Indian and Irish -- reflecting first British commercial and military rivalry and later heavy Ger. immigration to U.S.
The Dutch themselves spoke English well enough to understand the unsavory connotations of the label and in 1934 Dutch officials were ordered by their government to stop using the term Dutch. Instead, they were to rewrite their sentences so as to employ the official The Netherlands. [Rawson]
Dutch elm disease (1927) so called because it was first discovered in Holland (caused by fungus Ceratocystis ulmi).
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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