the act of offering or suggesting something to be considered, accepted, adopted, or done.
a plan or scheme proposed.
an offer of terms for a transaction, as in business.
a thing, matter, or person considered as something to be dealt with or encountered: Keeping diplomatic channels open is a serious proposition.
anything stated or affirmed for discussion or illustration.
Rhetoric. a statement of the subject of an argument or a discourse, or of the course of action or essential idea to be advocated.
Logic. a statement in which something is affirmed or denied, so that it can therefore be significantly characterized as either true or false.
Mathematics. a formal statement of either a truth to be demonstrated or an operation to be performed; a theorem or a problem.
a proposal of usually illicit sexual relations.
verb (used with object)
to propose sexual relations to.
to propose a plan, deal, etc., to.

1300–50; Middle English proposicio(u)n < Latin prōpositiōn- (stem of prōpositiō) a setting forth. See propositus, -ion

propositional, adjective
propositionally, adverb
underproposition, noun

preposition, proposition (see usage note at preposition).

2. See proposal. Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
proposition (ˌprɒpəˈzɪʃən)
1.  a proposal or topic presented for consideration
2.  philosophy
 a.  the content of a sentence that affirms or denies something and is capable of being true or false
 b.  Compare statement the meaning of such a sentence: I am warm always expresses the same proposition whoever the speaker is
3.  maths a statement or theorem, usually containing its proof
4.  informal a person or matter to be dealt with: he's a difficult proposition
5.  an invitation to engage in sexual intercourse
6.  (tr) to propose a plan, deal, etc, to, esp to engage in sexual intercourse
[C14 proposicioun, from Latin prōpositiō a setting forth; see propose]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

mid-14c., "a setting forth as a topic for discussion," from Fr. proposition (12c.), from L. propositionem "a setting forth, statement," noun of action from proponere (see propound). Meaning "action of proposing something to be done" is from late 14c. The verb is attested
from 1924; specifically of sexual favors from 1936.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
And there's a lot of bad research out there dedicated to proving obvious
  propositions that any lawyer knows.
For a theoretical proposition to be scientific, it must generate propositions
  that are falsifiable in principle.
Certainly one can live a life of delusion if one chooses and believe any number
  of contradictory propositions.
All scientific propositions or hypotheses must be formulated so that they can
  be tested.
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