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muhafazah (governorate) in Upper Egypt, extending 3-4 miles (5-6 km) on each side of the Nile River between the Arabian and Libyan deserts. Occupying the great bend in the Nile valley, it contains the celebrated ruins of Thebes and the Valley of the Tombs of the Kings. Qina has a dense agricultural population (more than 3,000 persons per square mile), and most of its land is under basin irrigation, yielding only one crop annually. Main crops are sugar (about three-fifths of the nation's production), lentils, and grains. Perennial irrigation water, mainly from the Kelabiya and Asfun canals, is supplied from the Isna Barrage. There are rich phosphate deposits near Isna, and a fertilizer plant is located there. Sugar refineries are located at Naj' Hammadi, Qus, and Dishna. The principal towns are Qina, the capital, Luxor (al-Uqsur), and Isna. Area 715 square miles (1,851 square km). Pop. (2006) 3,001,494.