queuing theory

noun
a theory that deals with providing a service on a waiting line, or queue, especially when the demand for it is irregular and describable by probability distributions, as processing phone calls arriving at a telephone exchange or collecting highway tolls from drivers at tollbooths.

Origin:
1950–55

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World English Dictionary
queuing theory
 
n
a mathematical approach to the rate at which components queue to be processed by a machine, instructions are accessed by a computer, orders need to be serviced, etc, to achieve the optimum flow

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Example sentences
Once these resources are known, the amount of necessary time could be
  determined using queuing theory.
Traffic movement and queuing theory required for modeling inputs will be
  covered.
In general, the delay estimates are based on queuing theory.
Data communication models are proposed based on queuing theory.
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