the share or proportional part of a total that is required from, or is due or belongs to, a particular district, state, person, group, etc.
a proportional part or share of a fixed total amount or quantity.
the number or percentage of persons of a specified kind permitted to enroll in a college, join a club, immigrate to a country, etc.

1660–70; < Medieval Latin, short for Latin quota pars how great a part?

1. allotment, apportionment, allocation.
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World English Dictionary
quota (ˈkwəʊtə)
1.  the proportional share or part of a whole that is due from, due to, or allocated to a person or group
2.  a prescribed number or quantity, as of items to be manufactured, imported, or exported, immigrants admitted to a country, or students admitted to a college
[C17: from Latin quota pars how big a share?, from quotus of what number]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Word Origin & History

1668, from M.L. quota, from L. quota pars "how large a part," from quota, fem. sing. of quotus "which, what number (in sequence)." See quote. Earliest ref. is to contributions of soldiers or supplies levied from a town or district; immigration sense is from 1921.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences
They have put annual restrictions on total catch both at the fishery and vessel
  levels, ending seasons once the quotas are met.
Yet another government bureaucracy was born to enforce the quotas.
Regulatory bodies have failed to set sufficiently strict catch quotas, and
  illegal fishing is rampant.
Quotas on the fishermen remain the chief mechanism to react to dwindling stocks.
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