the science dealing with x-rays or nuclear radiation, especially for medical uses.
the examination or photographing of organs, bones, etc., with such rays.
the interpretation of medical x-ray photographs.

1895–1900; radio- + -logy

radiologist, noun Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
radiology (ˌreɪdɪˈɒlədʒɪ)
the use of X-rays and radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

"medical use of X-rays," 1900, from radio- (see radio) + Gk.-based scientific suffix -logy "study of."
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

radiology ra·di·ol·o·gy (rā'dē-ŏl'ə-jē)

  1. The branch of medicine that deals with the use of radioactive substances in diagnosis and treatment of disease.

  2. The use of ionizing radiation for medical diagnosis, especially the use of x-rays in medical radiography or fluoroscopy.

  3. The use of radiation for the scientific examination of material structures; fluoroscopy.

ra'di·o·log'i·cal (-ə-lŏj'ĭ-kəl) or ra'di·o·log'ic (-lŏj'ĭk) adj.
ra'di·ol'o·gist n.
The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
radiology   (rā'dē-ŏl'ə-jē)  Pronunciation Key 
The branch of medicine that deals with diagnostic images of anatomic structures through the use of electromagnetic radiation or sound waves and that treats disease through the use of radioactive compounds. Radiologic imaging techniques include x-rays, CAT scans, PET scans, MRIs, and ultrasonograms.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary
radiology [(ray-dee-ol-uh-jee)]

The branch of medicine devoted to the study of images obtained by x-ray, ultrasound, CAT scans, or magnetic resonance imaging, and to the treatment of cancer by radiation therapy.

The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
When a radiologist is confident in the diagnosis from a scan, a traditional
  autopsy might be unnecessary.
The chances are that there will not be a qualified radiologist available to
  interpret the results.
Which reminds me, the films came back, and the radiologist says your arm is
  broken in two places.
He is a nonpracticing radiologist who now consults for a pharmaceutical company.
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