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[ref-uh-ree] /ˌrɛf əˈri/
one to whom something is referred, especially for decision or settlement; arbitrator.
(in certain games and sports) a judge having functions fixed by the rules of the game or sport; umpire.
an authority who evaluates scientific, technical, or scholarly papers, grant proposals, or the like for the publication or funding institution to which they have been submitted.
Law. a person selected by a court to take testimony in a case and return it to the court with recommendations as to the decision.
verb (used with object), refereed, refereeing.
to preside over as referee; act as referee in.
verb (used without object), refereed, refereeing.
to act as referee.
1605-15; refer + -ee
1. arbiter. See judge. Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Examples for refereed
  • On science sites, you should only put forward opinions based on solid refereed studies.
  • Most of the material alludes to books and other refereed published material by the author.
  • Reviews tend to be written by advocates, and often include non-refereed results.
  • Why not build on that to build online journals that start from those drafts to produce well-refereed papers.
  • Scholarly work may include conference presentations, refereed publications, and other scholarly works.
  • That's important, as one of your key duties will be to publish as much as possible in refereed journals.
  • The effort is about the same as writing a refereed article with revisions or teaching an extra-service course.
  • Libraries are bursting with refereed literature patting itself on the back for bottle washing and button sorting.
  • He is the author of many publications in refereed journals.
British Dictionary definitions for refereed


a person to whom reference is made, esp for an opinion, information, or a decision
the umpire or judge in any of various sports, esp football and boxing, responsible for ensuring fair play according to the rules
a person who is willing to testify to the character or capabilities of someone
(law) See Official Referee
verb -ees, -eeing, -eed
to act as a referee (in); preside (over)
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for refereed
1621, "person who examines patent applications" (see refer). Sporting use is first recorded 1840 (specifically of baseball from 1856; shortened form ref is from 1899); the verb is first attested 1889, from the noun.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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