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reference

[ref-er-uh ns, ref-ruh ns] /ˈrɛf ər əns, ˈrɛf rəns/
noun
1.
an act or instance of referring.
2.
a mention; allusion.
3.
something for which a name or designation stands; denotation.
4.
a direction in a book or writing to some other book, passage, etc.
5.
a book, passage, etc., to which one is directed.
6.
reference mark (def 2).
7.
material contained in a footnote or bibliography, or referred to by a reference mark.
8.
use or recourse for purposes of information:
a library for public reference.
9.
a person to whom one refers for testimony as to one's character, abilities, etc.
10.
a statement, usually written, as to a person's character, abilities, etc.
11.
relation, regard, or respect:
all persons, without reference to age.
verb (used with object), referenced, referencing.
12.
to furnish (a book, dissertation, etc.) with references:
Each new volume is thoroughly referenced.
13.
to arrange (notes, data, etc.) for easy reference:
Statistical data is referenced in the glossary.
14.
to refer to:
to reference a file.
Origin
1580-1590
1580-90; refer + -ence
Related forms
misreference, noun
nonreference, noun
prereference, noun
subreference, noun
unreferenced, adjective
Can be confused
allusion, reference.
reference, referral.
Synonyms
4. note, citation. 10. endorsement. 11. consideration, concern.
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Examples from the web for reference
  • News articles, blog posts and e-mails often lack a systematic reference list that could be used to make a citation index.
  • Historical information necessarily is not current and is provided for your reference only.
  • He had created an icon-a work that registers as an emotional and cultural reference point in the minds of millions.
  • The room was impeccable without having reference to any authority that could be perceived as inhibiting.
  • He could not find a point of moral reference in contemporary society.
  • It's a funny reference, but it's also a clue to how she came to build her new sound, employing culturally incongruous elements.
  • Other dictionaries, and reference works generally, appear to be unanimous on these points.
  • There are no index, no bibliography, no reference footnotes.
  • The result is a critic with an unusually wide frame of reference.
  • The latter rate is the reference point for loans to customers.
British Dictionary definitions for reference

reference

/ˈrɛfərəns; ˈrɛfrəns/
noun
1.
the act or an instance of referring
2.
something referred, esp proceedings submitted to a referee in law
3.
a direction of the attention to a passage elsewhere or to another book, document, etc
4.
a book or passage referred to
5.
a mention or allusion: this book contains several references to the Civil War
6.
(philosophy)
  1. the relation between a word, phrase, or symbol and the object or idea to which it refers
  2. the object referred to by an expression Compare sense (sense 12)
7.
  1. a source of information or facts
  2. (as modifier): a reference book, a reference library
8.
a written testimonial regarding one's character or capabilities
9.
a person referred to for such a testimonial
10.
  1. (foll by to) relation or delimitation, esp to or by membership of a specific class or group; respect or regard: all people, without reference to sex or age
  2. (as modifier): a reference group
11.
point of reference, a fact forming the basis of an evaluation or assessment; criterion
12.
terms of reference, the specific limits of responsibility that determine the activities of an investigating body, etc
verb (transitive)
13.
to furnish or compile a list of references for (an academic thesis, publication, etc)
14.
to make a reference to; refer to: he referenced Chomsky, 1956
preposition
15.
(commerce) with reference to: reference your letter of the 9th inst, re
Derived Forms
referencer, noun
referential (ˌrɛfəˈrɛnʃəl) adjective
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for reference
n.

1580s, "act of referring," from refer + -ance, or else from French référence, from Medieval Latin *referentia, from Latin referentem (nominative referens), present participle of referre (see refer). Meaning "direction to a book or passage" is recorded from 1610s. Meaning "testimonial" is from 1895. Reference book dates from 1808. Phrase in reference to is attested from 1590s.

v.

1620s, "to assign;" as "to provide with a reference," 1837 (implied in referenced), from reference (n.). Related: Referencing.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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reference in Technology
The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, © Denis Howe 2010 http://foldoc.org
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Idioms and Phrases with reference

reference

The American Heritage® Idioms Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Word Value for reference

14
16
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