refractory

[ri-frak-tuh-ree]
adjective
1.
hard or impossible to manage; stubbornly disobedient: a refractory child.
2.
resisting ordinary methods of treatment.
3.
difficult to fuse, reduce, or work, as an ore or metal.
noun, plural refractories.
4.
a material having the ability to retain its physical shape and chemical identity when subjected to high temperatures.
5.
refractories, bricks of various shapes used in lining furnaces.

Origin:
1600–10; variant of refractary (by analogy with adjectives in -ory1) < Latin refrāctārius stubborn, obstinate, equivalent to refrāct(us) (see refract) + -ārius -ary

refractorily, adverb
refractoriness, noun
unrefractory, adjective


1. obstinate, perverse, mulish, headstrong, intractable, disobedient, recalcitrant, ungovernable. See unruly.


1. obedient, tractable.
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World English Dictionary
refractory (rɪˈfræktərɪ)
 
adj
1.  unmanageable or obstinate
2.  med not responding to treatment
3.  (of a material) able to withstand high temperatures without fusion or decomposition
 
n , -ries
4.  a material, such as fireclay or alumina, that is able to withstand high temperatures: used to line furnaces, kilns, etc
 
[C17: variant of obsolete refractary; see refract]
 
re'fractorily
 
adv
 
re'fractoriness
 
n

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

refractory re·frac·to·ry (rĭ-frāk'tə-rē)
adj.

  1. Resistant to treatment, as a disease.

  2. Unresponsive to stimuli, as a muscle or nerve fiber.


re·frac'to·ri·ness n.
The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
refractory   (rĭ-frāk'tə-rē)  Pronunciation Key 
  1. Having a high melting point. Ceramics that are made from clay and minerals are often refractory, as are metal oxides and carbides. Refractory materials are often used as liners in furnaces.

  2. Resistant to heat.

  3. Of or relating to a refractory period.


The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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Encyclopedia Britannica
Encyclopedia

refractory

any material that has an unusually high melting point and that maintains its structural properties at very high temperatures. Composed principally of ceramics, refractories are employed in great quantities in the metallurgical, glassmaking, and ceramics industries, where they are formed into a variety of shapes to line the interiors of furnaces, kilns, and other devices that process materials at high temperatures.

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Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
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Example sentences
One way to shorten the refractory period is to be aware of what triggers our various emotions.
Some studies have shown treatment of obstructive sleep apnea, when present, may help in the control of refractory seizures.
Prostate cancer that does not respond to hormonal treatment is called hormone-resistant, or hormone-refractory, cancer.
It certainly seemed a rather summary method of repressing a refractory parishioner.
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