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in calligraphy, script based upon the clear, orderly Carolingian writing that Italian humanists mistook for the ancient Roman script used at the time of Cicero (1st century BC). They used the term roman to distinguish this supposedly classical style from black-letter and national hands. It was upon the model of antica, or roman, scripts that Renaissance scribes evolved the varieties of roman and italic, or cursive, styles of handwriting, upon which the corresponding typefaces of Nicolas Jenson and of Aldus Manutius were patterned. See also italic script.