adjective, rougher, roughest.
having a coarse or uneven surface, as from projections, irregularities, or breaks; not smooth: rough, red hands; a rough road.
shaggy or coarse: a dog with a rough coat.
(of an uninhabited region or large land area) steep or uneven and covered with high grass, brush, trees, stones, etc.: to hunt over rough country.
acting with or characterized by violence: Boxing is a rough sport.
characterized by unnecessary violence or infractions of the rules: It was a rough prize fight.
violently disturbed or agitated; turbulent, as water or the air: a rough sea.
having a violently irregular motion; uncomfortably or dangerously uneven: The plane had a rough flight in the storm.
stormy or tempestuous, as wind or weather.
sharp or harsh: a rough temper.
unmannerly or rude: his rough and churlish manner; They exchanged rough words.
disorderly or riotous: a rough mob.
difficult or unpleasant: to have a rough time of it.
harsh to the ear; grating or jarring, as sounds.
harsh to the taste; sharp or astringent: a rough wine.
coarse, as food.
lacking culture or refinement: a rough, countrified manner.
without refinements, luxuries, or ordinary comforts or conveniences: rough camping.
requiring exertion or strength rather than intelligence or skill: rough manual labor.
not elaborated, perfected, or corrected; unpolished, as language, verse, or style: a rough draft.
made or done without any attempt at exactness, completeness, or thoroughness; approximate or tentative: a rough guess.
crude, unwrought, nonprocessed, or unprepared: rough rice.
Phonetics. uttered with aspiration; having the sound of h; aspirated.
something that is rough, especially rough ground.
Golf. any part of the course bordering the fairway on which the grass, weeds, etc., are not trimmed.
the unpleasant or difficult part of anything.
anything in its crude or preliminary form, as a drawing.
Chiefly British. a rowdy; ruffian.
in a rough manner; roughly.
verb (used with object), roughed, roughing.
to make rough; roughen.
to give a beating to, manhandle, or subject to physical violence (often followed by up ): The mob roughed up the speaker.
to subject to some rough, preliminary process of working or preparation (often followed by down, off, or out ): to rough off boards.
to sketch roughly or in outline (often followed by in or out ): to rough out a diagram; to rough in the conversation of a novel.
Sports. to subject (a player on the opposing team) to unnecessary physical abuse, as in blocking or tackling: The team was penalized 15 yards for roughing the kicker.
verb (used without object), roughed, roughing.
to become rough, as a surface.
to behave roughly.
in the rough, in a rough, crude, or unfinished state: The country has an exciting potential, but civilization there is still in the rough.
rough it, to live without the customary comforts or conveniences; endure rugged conditions: We really roughed it on our fishing trip.

before 1000; Middle English (adj. and noun); Old English rūh (adj.); cognate with Dutch ruig, German rauh

roughly, adverb
roughness, noun
overrough, adjective
overroughly, adverb
overroughness, noun

rough, ruff.

1. irregular, jagged, bumpy, craggy. 2. hairy, bristly. 13. noisy, cacophonous, raucous. 16. impolite, uncivil, unpolished, rude.

1. smooth, even, regular. Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
rough (rʌf)
1.  (of a surface) not smooth; uneven or irregular
2.  (of ground) covered with scrub, boulders, etc
3.  denoting or taking place on uncultivated ground: rough grazing; rough shooting
4.  shaggy or hairy
5.  turbulent; agitated: a rough sea
6.  (of the performance or motion of something) uneven; irregular: a rough engine
7.  (of behaviour or character) rude, coarse, ill mannered, inconsiderate, or violent
8.  harsh or sharp: rough words
9.  informal severe or unpleasant: a rough lesson
10.  (of work, a task, etc) requiring physical rather than mental effort
11.  informal ill or physically upset: he felt rough after an evening of heavy drinking
12.  unfair or unjust: rough luck
13.  harsh or grating to the ear
14.  harsh to the taste
15.  without refinement, luxury, etc
16.  not polished or perfected in any detail; rudimentary; not elaborate: rough workmanship; rough justice
17.  not prepared or dressed: rough gemstones
18.  (of a guess, estimate, etc) approximate
19.  informal (Austral) (of a chance) not good
20.  having the sound of h; aspirated
21.  informal chiefly (Brit) rough on
 a.  severe towards
 b.  unfortunate for (a person)
22.  the rough side of one's tongue harsh words; a reprimand, rebuke, or verbal attack
23.  rough ground
24.  a sketch or preliminary piece of artwork
25.  an unfinished or crude state (esp in the phrase in the rough)
26.  golf the rough the part of the course bordering the fairways where the grass is untrimmed
27.  tennis, squash, badminton the side of a racket on which the binding strings form an uneven line
28.  informal a rough or violent person; thug
29.  the unpleasant side of something (esp in the phrase take the rough with the smooth)
30.  in a rough manner; roughly
31.  sleep rough to spend the night in the open; be without a home or without shelter
32.  (tr) to make rough; roughen
33.  (tr; foll by out, in, etc) to prepare (a sketch, report, piece of work, etc) in preliminary form
34.  informal rough it to live without the usual comforts or conveniences of life
[Old English rūh; related to Old Norse ruksa, Middle Dutch rūge, rūwe, German rauh]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009
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Word Origin & History

O.E. ruh "rough, untrimmed, uncultivated," from W.Gmc. *rukhwaz "shaggy, hairy, rough" (cf. M.Du. ruuch, Du. ruig, O.H.G. ruher, Ger. rauh), from P.Gmc. *rukhaz. The original -gh- sound was guttural, as in Scottish loch. Sense of "approximate" is first recorded 1607. The noun meaning "broken ground"
is from 1480 (phrase in the rough first recorded 1823); specific sense in golf is from 1901. Noun meaning "a rowdy" is first attested 1837. Rough draft is from 1699. Rough-and-ready is from 1810, originally military; rough-and-tumble (1810) is from the prize ring; .

late 15c., from rough (adj.). Phrase rough it (1768) is originally nautical; to rough (someone) up is from 1868. The U.S. football penalty roughing was originally a term from boxing (1866).
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Example sentences for roughness
Next, the data is separated into roughness, waviness and form.
Finally the data is summarized using one or more of the roughness parameters,
  or a graph.
Unless otherwise specified, roughness is measured perpendicular to the lay.
Slope parameters describe characteristics of the slope of the roughness profile.
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