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Atlantic port city, western Morocco. Safi was in turn inhabited by Carthaginians (who named it Asfi), Romans, and Goths and finally by Muslims in the 11th century. It was a ribat (a type of fortified monastery) in the 13th century and was mentioned by the historian Ibn Khaldun. The Portuguese occupied Safi (1508-41) and built a citadel, which now surrounds the 18th-century Keshla (military enclave). Safi prospered under the late 16th- and early 17th-century Sa'di sultans. Extending along the coast and climbing the inland plateau, the city is a mixture of medieval and modern architecture. Safi port serves Marrakech, about 85 miles (140 km) to the southeast, and exports phosphates from Youssoufia, with which it is connected by rail. It is a major fishing port with sardine canneries and also produces textiles. The city has chemical (phosphate-based) and food-processing industries located nearby to the south and is known for its pottery. In the hinterland around Safi, cereals (primarily barley), olives, sheep, goats, and cattle are raised. Pop. (2004) 284,750.