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chief town, resort, parish, and capital of Guernsey, Channel Islands, located on the east coast of the island of Guernsey where a narrow valley reaches the sea between moderately high cliffs. Early in the 13th century, Castle Cornet was built on an offshore tidal islet, reinforced later with La Tour Beauregard on the main shore to protect the roadstead. The Anglo-Gascon wine trade was then developing, and the existence of well-protected anchorage, together with Guernsey's position on the English Channel near the route of medieval shipping, meant that St. Peter Port was used increasingly as a refuge and port of call. Late in the 13th century a quay was built, and in 1309 the island's chief market was moved to St. Peter Port. The quay was extended in the 16th century, a second arm was built in the 18th, and the present harbour was constructed between 1853 and 1874. A charter (c. 1048) refers to St. Peter's, the town's ancient church, which preserves a variety of 13th-century styles. Other notable buildings are the Royal Court House (1799), the Markets (1822), Elizabeth College (1826; founded 1563), the Constables' Office, and the Priaulx Library. Hauteville House, former residence (1856-70) of Victor Hugo, now belongs to the city of Paris, France. Pop. (2001) 16,488.