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city, seat (1850) of San Luis Obispo county, western California, U.S. It lies on San Luis Obispo Creek at the base of the Santa Lucia Mountains, 20 miles (30 km) east of the Pacific Ocean and 80 miles (130 km) northwest of the city of Santa Barbara. It grew up as a farming centre around the mission of San Luis Obispo de Tolosa (for St. Louis, bishop of Toulouse), founded in 1772 by Junipero Serra as the fifth in the California chain of 21 missions. San Luis Obispo came under U.S. control in 1846. During the lawless and violent Gold Rush period, much of the land continued to be held by Mexicans, who established an economy largely based on the hides and tallow industry. In the 1860s severe drought destroyed much of the rancho land. The Mexican ranchers subsequently sold many of their holdings, and the area became a centre for beef- and dairy-cattle production. After 1894 it became a railroad division point. Oil, pumped and refined locally, is shipped through Port San Luis, located along the Pacific coast 9 miles (14 km) southwest of the city. Light manufacturing, wineries (located throughout the county), and tourism are other economic factors. It is the home of California Polytechnic State University (1901) and Cuesta (community) College (1963). The city's attractions include children's and county museums. Nearby are Pismo State Beach, Morro Bay and Montana de Oro state parks, and Los Padres National Forest. Inc. 1856. Pop. (1990) 41,958; (2000) 44,174.