sanhedrim

Sanhedrin

[san-hed-rin, -hee-drin, sahn-, san-i-drin]
noun Jewish History.
1.
Also called Great Sanhedrin. the highest council of the ancient Jews, consisting of 71 members, and exercising authority from about the 2nd century b.c.
2.
Also called Lesser Sanhedrin. a lower tribunal of this period, consisting of 23 members.
Also, Sanhedrim [san-hi-drim, san-i-] .


Origin:
1580–90; < late Hebrew Sanhedhrīn < Greek synédrion, equivalent to syn- syn- + hédr(a) seat (cf. cathedral) + -ion noun suffix

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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Collins
World English Dictionary
Sanhedrin (ˈsænɪdrɪn)
 
n
1.  the supreme judicial, ecclesiastical, and administrative council of the Jews in New Testament times, having 71 members
2.  a similar tribunal of 23 members having less important functions and authority
 
[C16: from Late Hebrew, from Greek sunedrion council, from sun-syn- + hedra seat]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Etymonline
Word Origin & History

sanhedrim
1588, from Late Heb. sanhedrin (gedola) "(great) council," from Gk. synedrion "assembly, council," lit. "sitting together," from syn- "together" + hedra "seat" (see cathedral). Abolished at the destruction of Jerusalem, A.D. 70. The prop. form is sanhedrin; the error began
as a false correction when the Gk. word was taken into Mishanic Heb., where -in is a form of the plural suffix of which -im is the more exact form.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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Easton
Bible Dictionary

Sanhedrim definition


more correctly Sanhedrin (Gr. synedrion), meaning "a sitting together," or a "council." This word (rendered "council," A.V.) is frequently used in the New Testament (Matt. 5:22; 26:59; Mark 15:1, etc.) to denote the supreme judicial and administrative council of the Jews, which, it is said, was first instituted by Moses, and was composed of seventy men (Num. 11:16, 17). But that seems to have been only a temporary arrangement which Moses made. This council is with greater probability supposed to have originated among the Jews when they were under the domination of the Syrian kings in the time of the Maccabees. The name is first employed by the Jewish historian Josephus. This "council" is referred to simply as the "chief priests and elders of the people" (Matt. 26:3, 47, 57, 59; 27:1, 3, 12, 20, etc.), before whom Christ was tried on the charge of claiming to be the Messiah. Peter and John were also brought before it for promulgating heresy (Acts. 4:1-23; 5:17-41); as was also Stephen on a charge of blasphemy (6:12-15), and Paul for violating a temple by-law (22:30; 23:1-10). The Sanhedrin is said to have consisted of seventy-one members, the high priest being president. They were of three classes (1) the chief priests, or heads of the twenty-four priestly courses (1 Chr. 24), (2) the scribes, and (3) the elders. As the highest court of judicature, "in all causes and over all persons, ecclesiastical and civil, supreme," its decrees were binding, not only on the Jews in Palestine, but on all Jews wherever scattered abroad. Its jurisdiction was greatly curtailed by Herod, and afterwards by the Romans. Its usual place of meeting was within the precincts of the temple, in the hall "Gazith," but it sometimes met also in the house of the high priest (Matt. 26:3), who was assisted by two vice-presidents.

Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary
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