the development and application of sanitary measures for the sake of cleanliness, protecting health, etc.
the disposal of sewage and solid waste.

1840–50; sanit(ary) + -ation Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
sanitation (ˌsænɪˈteɪʃən)
the study and use of practical measures for the preservation of public health

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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Word Origin & History

1848, irregularly formed from sanitary. As a euphemism for garbage (e.g. sanitation engineer) first recorded 1939.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

sanitation san·i·ta·tion (sān'ĭ-tā'shən)

  1. Formulation and application of measures designed to protect public health.

  2. Disposal of sewage.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Example sentences
Knowledge of dining service sanitation and safety requirements is also
  essential to the position.
Better water supplies and sanitation would cut the incidence of such diseases
Poor sanitation can foster transmission of all sorts of nasty bacterial bugs.
Most of those deaths could be avoided with proper sanitation.
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