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scale3

[skeyl] /skeɪl/
noun
1.
a succession or progression of steps or degrees; graduated series:
the scale of taxation; the social scale.
2.
a series of marks laid down at determinate distances, as along a line, for purposes of measurement or computation:
the scale of a thermometer.
3.
a graduated line, as on a map, representing proportionate size.
4.
a table of graduated rates, as of prices or wages:
These unions use different scales.
5.
a wage that conforms to such rates:
How much is scale?
6.
Also called union scale. a wage fixed by contract that is the minimum permitted to be paid to or accepted by a particular category of employed persons:
All actors and musicians for the performance, including the stars, are working for scale.
7.
an instrument with graduated spaces, as for measuring.
8.
the proportion that a representation of an object bears to the object itself:
a model on a scale of one inch to one foot.
9.
the ratio of distances or sometimes of areas on a map to the corresponding values on the earth.
10.
a certain relative or proportionate size or extent:
They built a residence on a yet more magnificent scale.
11.
a standard of measurement or estimation; point of reference by which to gauge or rate:
We have no scale by which to judge his achievements.
12.
Music. a succession of tones ascending or descending according to fixed intervals, especially such a series beginning on a particular note:
the major scale of C.
13.
Education, Psychology. a graded series of tests or tasks for measuring intelligence, achievement, adjustment, etc.
14.
Arithmetic. a system of numerical notation:
the decimal scale.
15.
anything by which one may ascend.
16.
Obsolete.
  1. a ladder.
  2. a flight of stairs.
verb (used with object), scaled, scaling.
17.
to climb by or as if by a ladder; climb up or over.
18.
to make according to scale.
19.
to adjust in amount according to a fixed scale or proportion (often followed by down or up):
to scale down wages.
20.
to measure by or as if by a scale.
21.
Lumbering.
  1. to measure (logs).
  2. to estimate the amount of (standing timber).
22.
Australian Informal. to ride on (public transportation) without paying the fare.
verb (used without object), scaled, scaling.
23.
to climb; ascend; mount.
24.
to progress in a graduated series.
Origin
1350-1400
1350-1400; (noun) Middle English < Latin scālae ladder, stairs; (v.) Middle English < Old French escaler or Medieval Latin scālāre, both ≪ Latin scāla, scālae
Synonyms
17. See climb.
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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British Dictionary definitions for scale down

scale1

/skeɪl/
noun
1.
any of the numerous plates, made of various substances resembling enamel or dentine, covering the bodies of fishes
2.
  1. any of the horny or chitinous plates covering a part or the entire body of certain reptiles and mammals
  2. any of the numerous minute structures covering the wings of lepidoptera related adjective squamous
3.
a thin flat piece or flake
4.
a thin flake of dead epidermis shed from the skin: excessive shedding may be the result of a skin disease
5.
a specialized leaf or bract, esp the protective covering of a bud or the dry membranous bract of a catkin
6.
7.
a flaky black oxide of iron formed on the surface of iron or steel at high temperatures
8.
any oxide formed on a metal during heat treatment
9.
another word for limescale
verb
10.
(transitive) to remove the scales or coating from
11.
to peel off or cause to peel off in flakes or scales
12.
(intransitive) to shed scales
13.
to cover or become covered with scales, incrustation, etc
14.
(transitive) to throw (a disc or thin flat object) edgewise through the air or along the surface of water
15.
(intransitive) (Austral, informal) to ride on public transport without paying a fare
16.
(transitive) (South African, slang) to steal (something)
Derived Forms
scalelike, adjective
Word Origin
C14: from Old French escale, of Germanic origin; compare Old English scealushell

scale2

/skeɪl/
noun
1.
(often pl) a machine or device for weighing
2.
one of the pans of a balance
3.
tip the scales
  1. to exercise a decisive influence
  2. (foll by at) to amount in weight (to)
verb (transitive)
4.
to weigh with or as if with scales
5.
to have a weight of
Word Origin
C13: from Old Norse skāl bowl, related to Old High German scāla cup, Old English scealushell, scale1

scale3

/skeɪl/
noun
1.
a sequence of marks either at regular intervals or else representing equal steps, used as a reference in making measurements
2.
a measuring instrument having such a scale
3.
  1. the ratio between the size of something real and that of a model or representation of it: the scale of the map was so large that we could find our house on it
  2. (as modifier): a scale model
4.
a line, numerical ratio, etc, for showing this ratio
5.
a progressive or graduated table of things, wages, etc, in order of size, value, etc: a wage scale for carpenters
6.
an established measure or standard
7.
a relative degree or extent: he entertained on a grand scale
8.
(music) a group of notes taken in ascending or descending order, esp within the compass of one octave
9.
(maths) the notation of a given number system: the decimal scale
10.
a graded series of tests measuring mental development, etc
11.
(obsolete) a ladder or staircase
verb
12.
to climb to the top of (a height) by or as if by a ladder
13.
(transitive) to make or draw (a model, plan, etc) according to a particular ratio of proportionate reduction
14.
(transitive; usually foll by up or down) to increase or reduce proportionately in size, etc
15.
(US & Canadian) (in forestry) to estimate the board footage of (standing timber or logs)
See also scale back
Word Origin
C15: via Italian from Latin scāla ladder; related to Old French eschiele, Spanish escala
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for scale down

scale

n.

"skin plates on fish or snakes," c.1300, from Old French escale "cup, scale, shell pod, husk" (12c., Modern French écale) "scale, husk," from Frankish *skala or some other Germanic source, from Proto-Germanic *skælo "split, divide" (cf. Dutch schaal "a scale, husk," Old High German scala "shell," Gothic skalja "tile," Old English scealu "shell, husk"), from PIE root *(s)kel- (1) "to cut, cleave, split" (cf. Latin culter "knife," scalpere "to cut, scrape;" Old Church Slavonic skolika "mussel, shell," Russian skala "rind, bark," Lithuanian skelti "split," Old English scell "shell," scalu "drinking cup, bowl, scale of a balance").

In reference to humans, as a condition of certain skin diseases, it is attested from c.1400. As what falls from one's eye when blindness ends (usually figurative), it echoes Acts ix:18 (Latin tanquam squamæ, Greek hosei lepides).

weighing instrument, early 15c.; earlier "pan of a balance" (late 14c.); earlier still "drinking cup" (c.1200), from Old Norse skal "bowl, drinking cup," in plural, "weighing scale" from a noun derivative of Proto-Germanic *skæla "split, divide" (cf. Old Norse skel "shell," Old English scealu, Old Saxon skala "a bowl (to drink from)," Old High German scala, German Schale "a bowl, dish, cup," Middle Dutch scale, Dutch schaal "drinking cup, bowl, shell, scale of a balance"), from PIE root *skel- (1) "to cut" (see scale (n.1)).

The connecting sense seems to be of half of a bivalve ("split") shell used as a drinking cup or a pan for weighing. But according to Paulus Diaconus the "drinking cup" sense originated from a supposed custom of making goblets from skulls (see skull). Related: Scales. This, as a name for the zodiac constellation Libra, is attested in English from 1630s.

"series of registering marks to measure by; marks laid down to determine distance along a line," late 14c., from Latin scala "ladder, staircase" (see scale (v.1)). Meaning "succession or series of steps" is from c.1600; that of "standard for estimation" (large scale, small scale, etc.) is from 1620s. Musical sense (1590s), and the meaning "proportion of a representation to the actual object" (1660s) are via Italian scala, from Latin scala.

v.

"to climb by or as by a ladder," late 14c., from scale (n.) "a ladder," from Latin scala "ladder, flight of stairs," from *scansla, from stem of scandere "to climb" (see scan (v.)). Related: Scaled; scaling.

"remove the scales of (a fish, etc.)," c.1400, from scale (n.1). Intransitive sense "to come off in scales" is from 1520s. Related: Scaled; scaling.

"weigh in scales," 1690s, from scale (n.2). Earlier "to compare, estimate" (c.1600). Meaning "measure or regulate by a scale" is from 1798, from scale (n.3); that of "weigh out in proper quantities" is from 1841. Scale down "reduce proportionately" is attested from 1887. Scale factor is from 1948. Related: Scaled; scaling.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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scale down in Medicine

scale 1 (skāl)
n.

  1. A dry, thin flake of epidermis shed from the skin.

  2. One of the many small, platelike dermal or epidermal structures that characteristically form the external covering of fishes, reptiles, and certain mammals.

v. scaled, scal·ing, scales
  1. To come off in scales or layers; flake.

  2. To become encrusted.

  3. To remove tartar from tooth surfaces with a pointed instrument.

scale 2
n.

  1. A system of ordered marks at fixed intervals used as a reference standard in measurement.

  2. An instrument or device bearing such marks.

  3. A proportion used in determining the dimensional relationship of a representation to that which it represents.

  4. A standard of measurement or judgment; a criterion.

scale 3
n.

  1. An instrument or a machine for weighing.

  2. Either of the pans, trays, or dishes of a balance.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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scale down in Science
scale 1
  (skāl)   
  1. One of the small thin plates forming the outer covering of fish, reptiles, and certain other animals.

  2. A similar part, such as one of the minute structures overlapping to form the covering on the wings of butterflies and moths.

  3. A small, thin, usually dry plant part, such as one of the protective leaves that cover a tree bud or one of the structures that contain the reproductive organs on the cones of a conifer.

  4. A plant disease caused by scale insects.


scale 2
  (skāl)   
  1. An ordered system of numbering or indexing that is used as a reference standard in measurement, in which each number corresponds to some physical quantity. Some scales, such as temperature scales, have equal intervals; other scales, such as the Richter scale, are arranged as a geometric progression.

  2. An instrument or a machine for weighing.


The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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scale down in Culture

scale definition


In music, the sequence of tones that a piece of music principally uses. A composition in the key of C-major uses the C-major scale, made up of the white keys on a piano.

scale definition


A system of marks set at fixed intervals, used as a standard for measurement.

Note: On a map, plan, or chart, a scale indicates the proportion between the representation and what it represents, such as the legend “One inch equals twenty miles” on a map.
Note: Temperature scales divide up the range of temperatures into equal degrees.
The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Slang definitions & phrases for scale down

scale

noun

The regular rate of pay for a union worker: paid scale for the day


The Dictionary of American Slang, Fourth Edition by Barbara Ann Kipfer, PhD. and Robert L. Chapman, Ph.D.
Copyright (C) 2007 by HarperCollins Publishers.
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Idioms and Phrases with scale down

scale down

Reduce the size or cost of, as in The owners decided to scale down wages. This expression, along with the related scale up, which refers to an increase, alludes to scale in the sense of “a fixed standard.” [ Late 1800s ]

scale

In addition to the idiom beginning with
scale
The American Heritage® Idioms Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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