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form of behaviour modification or psychotherapy directed specifically at difficulties in sexual interaction. Many sex therapists use techniques developed in the 1960s by the Americans William Masters and Virginia Johnson to help couples with nonorganic problems that affect their sex lives, including premature ejaculation, impotence, and other forms of sexual dysfunction. In the Masters and Johnson technique, a sex history is first taken and the couple given physical examinations to rule out physical problems. Therapists then employ exercises focusing on the giving and receiving of sensual, but not necessarily sexual, pleasure to help the couple overcome anxieties about sex. Specialized treatments directed against specific sex-related problems are also used during therapy. The therapy process often takes place in an intensive marital workshop lasting for several days.