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city, Rostov oblast (province), western Russia. It lies along the upper Grushevka River, 47 miles (75 km) northeast of Rostov-na-Donu. Shakhty developed in the early 19th century as a coal-mining centre and became a city in 1881. It is now the main city of the eastern end of the Donets Basin coalfield and is surrounded by many pits and their waste heaps. (The city's name means "pits" in Russian.) The coal is of high quality, and production is mostly anthracite; coking coal is also mined.