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city, Shizuoka ken (prefecture), Honshu, Japan. It lies on the lower Oi River, opposite the former city of Hamada; in 2005 Hamada was merged administratively into the city of Shimada. During the Edo (Tokugawa) era (1603-1867) it was an important post town on the Tokaido (Eastern Sea Highway) because fording the river was both difficult and dangerous. In the early 20th century the city became a trade centre for timber from the forest-covered Akaishi Range upstream. The area contains several large paper mills and lumber and woodworking industries. Tea and oranges are cultivated on the hills to the north. Pop. (2005) 96,078.