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Shiwalik Hills

sub-Himalayan range, extending west-northwestward for more than 1,000 miles (1,600 km) from the Tista River, Sikkim (India), through Nepal, across northwestern India, and into northern Pakistan. Though only 10 miles (16 km) wide in places, the range has an average elevation of 3,000 to 4,000 feet (900 to 1,200 m). It rises abruptly from the plain of the Indus and Ganges rivers (south) and parallels the main range of the Himalayas (north), from which it is separated by valleys. The Siwaliks are sometimes considered to include the southern foothills of the Assam Himalayas, which extend eastward for 400 miles (640 km) across southern Bhutan to the bend of the Brahmaputra River. The range proper, to which the name Siwalik (from Sanskrit, meaning "Belonging to [the God] Shiva") was formerly restricted, is the 200 miles (320 km) of foothills extending from Haridwar, India, on the Ganges River northwestward to the Beas River. Everywhere in this section the poor scrub forests have long since been removed, and the hills are subject to severe erosion. Periodic floods sweep masses of sand and silt down into ever-changing great streambeds, called cos, that are dry except after rains. Nepal's portion of the range is called the Churia Range.

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Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008. Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
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