short circuit

noun Electricity.
an abnormal, usually unintentional condition of relatively low resistance between two points of different potential in a circuit, usually resulting in a flow of excess current.

Origin:
1875–80

Dictionary.com Unabridged

short-circuit

[shawrt-sur-kit]
verb (used with object)
1.
Electricity.
a.
to make (an appliance, switch, etc.) inoperable by establishing a short circuit in.
b.
to carry (a current) as a short circuit.
2.
to bypass, impede, hinder, or frustrate: Bad weather short-circuited my vacation plans.
verb (used without object)
3.
Electricity. to form a short circuit or become inoperable due to a short circuit.

Origin:
1870–75

Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Collins
World English Dictionary
short circuit
 
n
1.  a faulty or accidental connection between two points of different potential in an electric circuit, bypassing the load and establishing a path of low resistance through which an excessive current can flow. It can cause damage to the components if the circuit is not protected by a fuse
 
vb
2.  to develop or cause to develop a short circuit
3.  (tr) to bypass (a procedure, regulation, etc)
4.  (tr) to hinder or frustrate (plans, etc)

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
2009 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
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American Heritage
Science Dictionary
short circuit   (shôrt)  Pronunciation Key 
An electrical path in a circuit that causes most of the current to flow around or away from some other path in the circuit. Accidental short circuits, especially between the high and low voltages of a power supply, can cause very strong current to flow, possibly damaging or overheating the circuit.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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American Heritage
Cultural Dictionary

short circuit definition


An electrical circuit in which a path of very low resistance has been opened, usually accidentally. When the resistance drops, the electric current in the circuit becomes very high and can cause damage to the circuit and start fires.

The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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Example sentences
Cells expansion and short circuit caused by direct anode contact and continuous
  high efficiency electric current overcharging.
Eventually these structures can cause a short circuit.
In addition, the connectors should be kept away from metals that could cause a
  short circuit.
These air conditioners can short circuit posing a risk of fires, and shock and
  burn injuries to consumers.
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