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city, Rhineland-Palatinate Land (state), southwestern Germany. Bingen is a port at the confluence of the Rhine and Nahe rivers, near the whirlpool known as Binger Loch. It originated as the Roman fortress of Bingium and later became an imperial free city, joining the Hanseatic League in 1254. The archbishop-electors of Mainz held the town from 1281 until it fell to Hessen in 1803, after the secularization of the electorate. The Nahe bridge and Klopp Castle (destroyed 1689, restored 1854) are built on Roman foundations, and the local museum has a display of Roman surgical instruments. Other historic buildings are St. Martin's Church (1403), St. Rochus Chapel (built in thanksgiving for deliverance from the plague of 1666), and the well-known Mauseturm (Mouse Tower), which is on a rock in the Rhine. In the Mauseturm, according to Saxon legend, Archbishop Hatto I of Mainz was gnawed to death by mice in 913 for wrongdoing. Now a rail junction and tourist destination, Bingen is also an old established centre of the wine trade. Pop. (2005) 24,739.