# sine

[sahyn] /saɪn/
noun
1.
Trigonometry.
1. (in a right triangle) the ratio of the side opposite a given acute angle to the hypotenuse.
2. (of an angle) a trigonometric function equal to the ratio of the ordinate of the end point of the arc to the radius vector of this end point, the origin being at the center of the circle on which the arc lies and the initial point of the arc being on the x-axis.
Abbreviation: sin.
2.
Geometry. (originally) a perpendicular line drawn from one extremity of an arc of a circle to the diameter that passes through its other extremity.
3.
Mathematics. (of a real or complex number x) the function sin x defined by the infinite series x − (x 3 /3!) + (x 5 /5!) − + …, where ! denotes factorial.
Compare cosine (def 2), factorial (def 1).
Origin of sine
1585-1595
1585-95; < New Latin, Latin sinus a curve, fold, pocket, translation of Arabic jayb literally, pocket, by folk etymology < Sanskrit jiyā, jyā chord of an arc, literally, bowstring
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2015.
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Examples from the Web for sines
Historical Examples
• Minutes of an Hour, are set down according to the same Proportions of sines before suggested.

• The angle corresponding to sine b is next found in a table of sines.

Franklin D. Jones
• I have continued the sines of the Projection unto two severall revolutions, the one beginning at 77.

• The interpolations are effected with the aid of a small table containing the logarithms of 72 sines.

Florian Cajori
• He was the first to make use of sines instead of chords, and versed sines.

J. Ellard Gore
• From this we say that the sines of the angles of incidence and refraction have a constant proportion or ratio to one another.

Marcus J. Martin
• Fifthly, whether the images rise in proportion to the sines of the inclinations?

John Elliot Drinkwater Bethune
• Gunter had as early as 1620 given the logarithms of sines and tangents on the sexagesimal scale, as far as seven decimals.

• Now, as it happened, it was published at Nuremberg in 1533, and there was no table of sines in it.

Henry B. (Henry Benjamin) Wheatley
• Purbach had computed a table of sines to a radius of 600,000 parts.

British Dictionary definitions for sines

## sine1

/saɪn/
noun (of an angle)
1.
1. a trigonometric function that in a right-angled triangle is the ratio of the length of the opposite side to that of the hypotenuse
2. a function that in a circle centred at the origin of a Cartesian coordinate system is the ratio of the ordinate of a point on the circumference to the radius of the circle
sin
Word Origin
C16: from Latin sinus a bend; in New Latin, sinus was mistaken as a translation of Arabic jiba sine (from Sanskrit jīva, literally: bowstring) because of confusion with Arabic jaib curve

## sine2

/ˈsaɪnɪ/
preposition
1.
(esp in Latin phrases or legal terms) lacking; without
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for sines

## sine

n.

trigonometric function, 1590s (in Thomas Fale's "Horologiographia, the Art of Dialling"), from Latin sinus "fold in a garment, bend, curve, bosom" (see sinus). Used mid-12c. by Gherardo of Cremona in Medieval Latin translation of Arabic geometrical text to render Arabic jiba "chord of an arc, sine" (from Sanskrit jya "bowstring"), which he confused with jaib "bundle, bosom, fold in a garment."

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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sines in Science
 sine   (sīn)    The ratio of the length of the side opposite an acute angle in a right triangle to the length of the hypotenuse.The ordinate of the endpoint of an arc of a unit circle centered at the origin of a Cartesian coordinate system, the arc being of length x and measured counterclockwise from the point (1, 0) if x is positive or clockwise if x is negative.A function of a number x, equal to the sine of an angle whose measure in radians is equal to x.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
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Related Abbreviations for sines

### SINES

short interspersed elements

### SINE

sign, that is, operator's personal initials (shortwave transmission)
The American Heritage® Abbreviations Dictionary, Third Edition