Know these essential literary terms?
"penis," 1863, perhaps related to British slang John Thomas, which has the same meaning (1887).
surname, literally "John's (child);" see John. Phrase keep up with the Joneses (1913, American English) is from the title of a comic strip by Arthur R. Momand. The slang sense "intense desire, addiction" (1968) probably arose from earlier use of Jones as a synonym for "heroin," presumably from the proper name, but the connection, if any, is obscure. Related: Jonesing.
"building for worship," Old English tempel, from Latin templum "piece of ground consecrated for the taking of auspices, building for worship," of uncertain signification. Commonly referred either to PIE root *tem- "to cut," on notion of "place reserved or cut out," or to PIE root *temp- "to stretch," on notion of cleared space in front of an altar. Figurative sense of "any place regarded as occupied by divine presence" was in Old English. Applied to Jewish synagogues from 1590s.
"side of the forehead," early 14c., from Old French temple "side of the forehead" (11c.), from Vulgar Latin *tempula (feminine singular), from Latin tempora, plural of tempus (genitive temporis) "side of the forehead," probably originally "the thin stretch of skin at the side of the forehead." Possibly associated with tempus span "timely space (for a mortal blow with a sword)," or from the notion of "stretched, thinnest part," which is the sense of cognate Old English ðunwange, literally "thin cheek."
Old English fox, from West Germanic *fukhs (cf. Old Saxon vohs, Middle Dutch and Dutch vos, Old High German fuhs, German Fuchs, Old Norse foa, Gothic fauho), from Proto-Germanic base *fuh-, corresponding to PIE *puk- "tail" (cf. Sanskrit puccha- "tail").
The bushy tail is also the source of words for "fox" in Welsh (llwynog, from llwyn "bush"); Spanish (raposa, from rabo "tail"); and Lithuanian (uodegis "fox," from uodega "tail"). Metaphoric extension to "clever person" is early 13c. Meaning "sexually attractive woman" is from 1940s; but foxy in this sense is recorded from 1895.
1560s (but perhaps implied in Old English foxung "foxlike wile, craftiness"), from fox (n.). Foxed in booksellers' catalogues means "stained with fox-colored marks." In other contexts, it typically meant "drunk" (1610s).
Algonquian people, translating French renards, which itself may be a translation of an Iroquoian term meaning "red fox people." Their name for themselves is /meškwahki:-haki/ "red earths." French renard "fox" is from Reginhard, the name of the fox in old Northern European fables (cf. Low German Reinke de Vos), originally "strong in council, wily."
in reference to rockets or matches, from Sir William Congreve (1772-1828).
Hamilton Ham·il·ton (hām'əl-tən), Alice. 1869-1970.
American toxicologist and physician known for her research on occupational poisons and her book Industrial Poisons in the United States (1925).
Jenner Jen·ner (jěn'ər), Edward. 1749-1823.
British physician and vaccination pioneer who found that smallpox could be prevented by inoculation with the substance from cowpox lesions.
An addiction, especially to heroin.
siemens sie·mens (sē'mənz)
n. pl. siemens
A unit of electrical conductance in the International System of Units, equal to one ampere per volt.
temple tem·ple (těm'pəl)
The flat region on either side of the forehead.
Either of the sidepieces of a frame for eyeglasses that extends along the temple and over the ear.
Wallace Wal·lace (wŏl'ĭs), Alfred Russel. 1823-1913.
British naturalist who developed a concept of evolution that paralleled the work of Charles Darwin.
Watson Wat·son (wŏt'sən), James Dewey. Born 1928.
American biologist who with Francis Crick proposed a spiral model, the double helix, for the molecular structure of DNA. He shared a 1962 Nobel Prize for advances in the study of genetics.
British chemist and physicist who discovered thallium in 1861 and invented the radiometer (1873-76). He also developed the Crookes tube, a modified vacuum tube that was later used by W.C. Roentgen and J.J. Thomson in experiments that led to the discovery of x-rays and the electron, respectively.
Family of British astronomers led by Sir William Herschel (1738-1822), who discovered Uranus (1781) and cataloged more than 800 binary stars and 2,500 nebulae. His sister Caroline Herschel (1750-1848) discovered eight comets and several nebulae and star clusters, and published at least two astronomical catalogs which are still currently used. His son Sir John Frederick William Herschel (1792-1871) discovered 525 nebulae and pioneered celestial photography.
Our Living Language : Brother and sister William Herschel and Caroline Herschel began their professional careers as musicians. Born in Germany, they moved to England, where Caroline became a soprano soloist in performances conducted by her brother. William's background in music spurred him to study mathematics and astronomy, which he then taught his sister, and they each went on to produce a string of important scientific discoveries. William was the first astronomer to study binary stars and, while searching for comets in 1781, he discovered Uranus, the first new planet to be discovered since ancient times. He also discovered two satellites of Uranus (Titania and Oberon, 1787), and two of Saturn (Mimas and Enceladus, 1789-90). Caroline observed her first comet in 1786 and eventually discovered seven others, as well as nebulae and star clusters. King George III appointed William his Astronomer Royal in 1787, and Caroline was made assistant astronomer. After William's death, Caroline returned to Germany and published a catalog of 2,500 nebulae, for which the (British) Royal Astronomical Society awarded her its gold medal in 1828.
British physician who pioneered the practice of vaccination. His experiments proved that individuals who had been inoculated with the virus that caused cowpox, a mild skin disease of cattle, became immune to smallpox. Jenner's discovery laid the foundations for the science of immunology.
Our Living Language : In 1980 the World Health Organization declared that the deadly disease smallpox had been eradicated, an accomplishment attributed to the success of the smallpox vaccine. The vaccine had been developed almost 200 years earlier by the British physician Edward Jenner, who had based his work on a piece of folk wisdom from the countryside that few doctors had taken seriously: people who caught cowpox, a mild viral infection of cattle, never got smallpox. In 1796 Jenner proved the truth of this scientifically in a famous experiment he conducted on an eight-year-old boy named James Phipps. Jenner exposed Phipps to a person with cowpox, then two months later exposed him to smallpox (this would be considered unethical by today's standards). As Jenner expected, the boy warded off the smallpox without any complications. Prior to this, there existed a form of vaccination against smallpox that consisted of exposing people to a mild form of the disease. Although this method often worked, it was risky, and the exposed person sometimes died. Jenner, who devised the word vaccination from the Latin vacca, for "cow," is considered to be the father of immunology. He also did significant research on heart disease.
British chemist who discovered the noble gases argon (with Lord Rayleigh), helium, neon, xenon, and krypton. For this work he was awarded the 1904 Nobel Prize for chemistry. In 1908 his research showed that radon was also a noble gas.
British physicist who discovered the electron in 1897. While experimenting with cathode rays, he deduced that the particles he observed were smaller than an atom. Thomson also made noteworthy studies of the conduction of electricity through gases. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1906.
Our Living Language : Nowadays we take for granted the existence of electrons, but this was not true just over 100 years ago, when the atom was thought to be a single unit that had no parts. The breakthroughs came in the late 1890s, when the British physicist J. J. Thomson was studying what we now call cathode-ray tubes. As an electric current passed from the cathode at one end of the tube to the anode at the other, raylike emanations were seen to proceed from the cathode to the anode. Thomson examined the nature of the rays' charge by bringing a positively charged and a negatively charged plate near the path of the rays, and observed that the rays were deflected toward the positive plate, suggesting they had negative charge. A series of experiments in which various objects were placed in the path of the rays showed that they also had momentum (they would cause a small paddle wheel to turn, for example). If they had momentum, that meant (in the physics of the time) that they had mass, suggesting that the rays were composed of tiny particles. Other experimental results, some by other scientists, suggested that the ratio of the charge to the mass of these particles had to be less than one-thousandth the ratio for charged hydrogen atoms. By examining both the energy of the rays and the amount by which an electric charge deflected them, Thomson was able to calculate that these particles had one two-thousandth the mass of a hydrogen atom. The particles, first named corpuscles, were later called electrons. (The term electron was not completely new; it had been invented in 1891 for the rays themselves.) Thomson was thus the first to discover that particles smaller than atoms existed, and for his pioneering work he was awarded the 1906 Nobel Prize for physics.
British naturalist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection independently of Charles Darwin. Wallace spent eight years (1854-62) traveling in Malaysia and assembling evidence for his theories, which he sent to Darwin in England. Their findings were first presented to the public in 1858.
Irish physicist who, with John Cockcroft, was the first to successfully split an atom using a particle accelerator in 1932. For this work they shared the 1951 Nobel Prize for physics.
American biologist who, working with Francis Crick, identified the structure of DNA in 1953. By analyzing the patterns cast by x-rays striking DNA molecules, they discovered that DNA has the structure of a double helix, two spirals linked together by bases in ladderlike rungs. For this work Watson and Crick shared with Maurice Wilkins the 1962 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine.
The central place of worship for the Israelites. The first Temple was built in Jerusalem by King Solomon. The stone tablets received by Moses on Mount Sinai — tablets on which the Ten Commandments were written — were kept in the central chamber of Solomon's Temple. Solomon's Temple was later destroyed, as were two succeeding temples built on the site.
Note: A wall remaining from the temples, known as the Western Wall, is one of the most sacred places for Jews today.
Note: Berkeley is the location of a distinguished branch of the University of California. The University of California at Berkeley has been a center for student activism and social-change movements, particularly in the 1960s and early 1970s.
A beautiful, sexually attractive woman or, in teenage use, man (1940s+ Teenagers & black)verb
To deceive; mislead; outwit; outfox: He tried to fox me with that phony accent, and did (1631+)
: She's jonesing for those diamond earringsRelated Terms
[1960s+ Narcotics; origin unknown; perhaps an innocent code word used by addicts and dealers]
The penis: beat out time with their titties and their johnsons/ I've only got one Johnson, and he winks/ Enough is enough, turn my jones looseRelated Terms
[1863+; origin unknown; such a use is recorded fr Canada in the mid-1800s, perhaps as a euphemism for the British euphemism John Thomas, ''penis'']
(Heb. shu'al, a name derived from its digging or burrowing under ground), the Vulpes thaleb, or Syrian fox, the only species of this animal indigenous to Palestine. It burrows, is silent and solitary in its habits, is destructive to vineyards, being a plunderer of ripe grapes (Cant. 2:15). The Vulpes Niloticus, or Egyptian dog-fox, and the Vulpes vulgaris, or common fox, are also found in Palestine. The proverbial cunning of the fox is alluded to in Ezek. 13:4, and in Luke 13:32, where our Lord calls Herod "that fox." In Judg. 15:4, 5, the reference is in all probability to the jackal. The Hebrew word _shu'al_ through the Persian _schagal_ becomes our jackal (Canis aureus), so that the word may bear that signification here. The reasons for preferring the rendering "jackal" are (1) that it is more easily caught than the fox; (2) that the fox is shy and suspicious, and flies mankind, while the jackal does not; and (3) that foxes are difficult, jackals comparatively easy, to treat in the way here described. Jackals hunt in large numbers, and are still very numerous in Southern Palestine.
first used of the tabernacle, which is called "the temple of the Lord" (1 Sam. 1:9). In the New Testament the word is used figuratively of Christ's human body (John 2:19, 21). Believers are called "the temple of God" (1 Cor. 3:16, 17). The Church is designated "an holy temple in the Lord" (Eph. 2:21). Heaven is also called a temple (Rev. 7:5). We read also of the heathen "temple of the great goddess Diana" (Acts 19:27). This word is generally used in Scripture of the sacred house erected on the summit of Mount Moriah for the worship of God. It is called "the temple" (1 Kings 6:17); "the temple [R.V., 'house'] of the Lord" (2 Kings 11:10); "thy holy temple" (Ps. 79:1); "the house of the Lord" (2 Chr. 23:5, 12); "the house of the God of Jacob" (Isa. 2:3); "the house of my glory" (60:7); an "house of prayer" (56:7; Matt. 21:13); "an house of sacrifice" (2 Chr. 7:12); "the house of their sanctuary" (2 Chr. 36:17); "the mountain of the Lord's house" (Isa. 2:2); "our holy and our beautiful house" (64:11); "the holy mount" (27:13); "the palace for the Lord God" (1 Chr. 29:1); "the tabernacle of witness" (2 Chr. 24:6); "Zion" (Ps. 74:2; 84:7). Christ calls it "my Father's house" (John 2:16).
city, Bell county, central Texas, U.S. It lies along the Little River, just southeast of Belton Lake (impounded on the Leon River) and some 35 miles (55 km) south-southwest of Waco. With the cities of Bartlett, Belton, Copperas Cove, Gatesville, Salado, and Killeen, it forms part of the Killeen-Temple Metropolitan Statistical Area.
unit of electrical conductance. In the case of direct current (DC), the conductance in siemens is the reciprocal of the resistance in ohms (S = amperes per volts); in the case of alternating current (AC), it is the reciprocal of the impedance in ohms. A former term for the reciprocal of the ohm is the mho (ohm spelled backward). It is disputed whether the siemens was named after the German-born engineer-inventor Sir William Siemens (1823-83) or his brother, the electrical engineer Werner von Siemens (1816-92).