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city, eastern Uzbekistan. It lies at the foot of the Alay Mountains in the southern part of the Fergana Valley. It was founded by the Russians in 1877 as the military and administrative centre of the province of Fergana, formed from the newly conquered khanate of Kokand (Quqon). It became part of the Turkestan A.S.S.R. in 1918, part of the Uzbek S.S.R in 1924, and part of independent Uzbekistan in 1991. In addition to its considerable industrial development-including silk and cotton textile plants, an oil refinery, and chemical works producing fertilizers and artificial fibres-the city is noteworthy for its wide, tree-lined streets and extensive parks. In 1977 Fergana expanded its city limits to absorb the chemical and oil-refining suburb of Kirgili. There is a teacher-training institute, a theatre, and a museum. About 19 miles (30 km) northwest of the city is the ancient town of Marghilon, still an important centre of silk production. Pop. (1992 est.) 193,000.