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electromagnetic radiation, including X-rays, ultraviolet and infrared radiation, and radio emissions, as well as visible light, emanating from the Sun. Of the 3.8 1033 ergs emitted by the Sun every second, about 1 part in 120 million is received by its attendant planets and their satellites. The small part of this energy intercepted by Earth (the solar constant, on average 1.4 kilowatts per square metre) is of enormous importance to life and to the maintenance of natural processes on Earth's surface (see also sunlight). The energy output of the Sun has its peak at a wavelength of 0.47 micrometre (0.000019 inch; a micrometre is 106 metre), and the Sun radiates about 8 kilowatts per square cm of its surface