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town and North Sea port, South Tyneside district, metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear, historic county of Durham, northeastern England. It lies on the south side of the mouth of the River Tyne near the site of a Roman fort. The town, founded by the Convent of Durham in the 13th century, was a centre of the salt and glass industries in the 17th and 18th centuries. The first British self-righting lifeboat (for aiding ships in distress in the region) was launched there in 1790. Shipbuilding and coal mining fueled the town's growth during the 19th century, but by the late 20th century these traditional industries had given way to service activities and newer manufacturing sectors, such as electronics. Pop. (2001) 82,854.