specialization

[spesh-uh-luh-zey-shuhn]
noun
1.
the act of specializing, or pursuing a particular line of study or work: Medical students with high student loans often feel driven into specialization.
2.
Biology. the adaptation of an organism or organ to a special function or environment: Basic biology suggests the selective pressures leading to convergent evolutionary specialization among desert-dwelling species.
3.
the act of being restricted to some specific, or the act of becoming specialized.
Also, especially British, specialisation.


Origin:
specializ(e) + -ation

despecialization, noun
nonspecialization, noun
subspecialization, noun
superspecialization, noun
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Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Collins
World English Dictionary
specialize or specialise (ˈspɛʃəˌlaɪz)
 
vb
1.  (intr) to train in or devote oneself to a particular area of study, occupation, or activity
2.  (usually passive) to cause (organisms or their parts) to develop in a way most suited to a particular environment or way of life or (of organisms, etc) to develop in this way
3.  (tr) to modify or make suitable for a special use or purpose
4.  (tr) to mention specifically; specify
5.  (tr) to endorse (a commercial paper) to a specific payee
 
specialise or specialise
 
vb
 
speciali'zation or specialise
 
n
 
speciali'sation or specialise
 
n

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

specialization spe·cial·i·za·tion (spěsh'ə-lĭ-zā'shən)
n.

  1. The act of specializing.

  2. A specialty.

  3. Adaptation, as of an organ or organism, to a specific function or environment.

  4. See differentiation.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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FOLDOC
Computing Dictionary

specialisation definition


A reduction in generality, usually for the sake of increased efficiency. If a piece of code is specialised for certain values of certain variables (usually function arguments), this is known as "partial evaluation". In a language with overloading (e.g. Haskell), an overloaded function might be specialised to a non-overloaded instance at compile-time if the types of its arguments are known.

The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, © Denis Howe 2010 http://foldoc.org
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Example sentences
But in evolution, the price of specialisation is vulnerability to extinction.
To them, globalisation meant above all specialisation, and specialisation
  brings complexity.
But their chief contribution to society comes from their area of specialisation.
These can be taken broadly or grouped into a specialisation or professional
  track.
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