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supernova

[soo-per-noh-vuh] /ˌsu pərˈnoʊ və/
noun, plural supernovas, supernovae
[soo-per-noh-vee] /ˌsu pərˈnoʊ vi/ (Show IPA).
Astronomy
1.
the explosion of a star, possibly caused by gravitational collapse, during which the star's luminosity increases by as much as 20 magnitudes and most of the star's mass is blown away at very high velocity, sometimes leaving behind an extremely dense core.
2.
the star undergoing such an explosion.
Origin
1925-1930
1925-30; super- + nova
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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Examples from the web for supernova
  • The diamonds, by contrast, are thought to be the products of supernova explosions.
  • But at their cores shrinking continues, making a supernova imminent.
  • Astronomers have gained their sharpest ever view of a supergiant star that could be on the verge of exploding as a supernova.
  • One archaeoastronomer suggests that a new supernova in the ancient skies may have pointed the way.
  • The ultra-dense remains of the galaxy's youngest supernova are full of bizarre quantum matter.
  • Many of its stars are on the verge of blowing up in supernova explosions.
  • The presumption is that it was created by a supernova.
  • Astronomers have identified the best candidate yet for our galaxy's next supernova explosion, according to a new report.
  • The outcome after the first supernova is still uncertain, though.
  • Planetary nebulae and supernova remnants, however, mark the spectacular end of a star's life.
British Dictionary definitions for supernova

supernova

/ˌsuːpəˈnəʊvə/
noun (pl) -vae (-viː), -vas
1.
a star that explodes catastrophically owing to either instabilities following the exhaustion of its nuclear fuel or gravitational collapse following the accretion of matter from an orbiting companion star, becoming for a few days up to one hundred million times brighter than the sun. The expanding shell of debris (the supernova remnant) creates a nebula that radiates radio waves, X-rays, and light, for hundreds or thousands of years Compare nova
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012
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Word Origin and History for supernova
n.

1934, formed from super- + nova.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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supernova in Science
supernova
  (s'pər-nō'və)   
Plural supernovae (s'pər-nō'vē) or supernovas
A massive star that undergoes a sudden, extreme increase in brightness across the electromagnetic spectrum, followed by a more gradual decrease lasting from several days to several months. Supernovae occur when a supergiant star collapses suddenly at the end of its life, condensing its core material into an extremely compact mass that then undergoes a slight rebound. The resulting shock wave sends all matter surrounding the core flying into space, leaving a neutron star or black hole at the site of the core's collapse. Supernovae may also occur when a white dwarf accretes material from a companion red giant star, resulting in an increase in mass that eventually triggers carbon fusion in the core of the white dwarf; the sudden increase in available fuel causes energy to be released in a violent explosion. In both cases the shock waves induce further fusion in the matter surrounding the collapsed core; the many elements resulting from this fusion and from the various other stages of nucleosynthesis over the lifetime of the star are scattered into space. These elements serve as the material from which new stellar and planetary systems are formed; in fact, every heavy element found on Earth is thought to have been the product of supernovae explosions. The last supernova to be observed in the Milky Way was seen in 1604 by Johannes Kepler and was used by Galileo, at his trial, as evidence against the presupposition that the universe never changes. Compare nova.
The American Heritage® Science Dictionary
Copyright © 2002. Published by Houghton Mifflin. All rights reserved.
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supernova in Culture
supernova [(sooh-puhr-noh-vuh)]

A large star in its death throes that suddenly explodes, increasing many thousands of times in brightness.

Note: Most heavy elements are created by nuclear reactions in supernovas and then returned to space.
Note: In 1987, a supernova was sighted near the Milky Way galaxy. This supernova provided astronomers with a unique opportunity to test the theories of the structure of stars.
The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition
Copyright © 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
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