American lawyer and writer (b. Feb. 24, 1908, Schenectady, N.Y.--d. May 23, 1998, New York, N.Y.), was best known for his role as the chief prosecutor during the Nurnberg war crime trials following World War II. In that capacity he helped establish the accountability of national leaders for their actions during wartime and the right of the international community to seek justice for crimes against humanity. Taylor graduated from Harvard Law School in 1932 and, after a clerkship with Judge Augustus Hand, served on the staffs of a number of government agencies before becoming (1940) general counsel to the Federal Communications Commission. When the U.S. entered the war, he joined Army Intelligence, eventually working on code breaking in England and attaining the rank of colonel. Taylor gained valuable knowledge of the German military in this assignment, and at the war's end he was asked to serve as an assistant prosecutor at the Nurnberg Trials. He helped ascertain that a standard of moderation prevailed so that the trials did not just become acts of vengeance; gradations of guilt were acknowledged, efforts were made to avoid guilt by association, and civil liberties were protected. After the first trial Taylor was promoted (1946) to brigadier general and made the chief prosecutor of the remaining trials. By the time the trials ended in 1949, nearly 150 Nazis had been convicted. Taylor later worked in the administration of Pres. Harry Truman for over a year during the Korean War and also entered private law practice and taught. He spoke out strongly against the tactics of Sen. Joseph McCarthy during his communist witch-hunts in the 1950s, and was an outspoken opponent of American conduct in the Vietnam War. Among Taylor's books were Sword and Swastika (1952), Grand Inquest: The Story of Congressional Investigations (1955), Nuremberg and Vietnam: An American Tragedy (1970), Munich: The Price of Peace (1979), and The Anatomy of the Nuremberg Trials: A Personal Memoir (1992).
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