a particular state of mind or feelings.
habit of mind, especially with respect to irritability or patience, outbursts of anger, or the like; disposition: an even temper.
heat of mind or passion, shown in outbursts of anger, resentment, etc.
calm disposition or state of mind: to be out of temper.
a substance added to something to modify its properties or qualities.
the degree of hardness and strength imparted to a metal, as by quenching, heat treatment, or cold working.
the percentage of carbon in tool steel.
the operation of tempering.
Archaic. a middle course; compromise.
Obsolete. the constitution or character of a substance.
verb (used with object)
to moderate or mitigate: to temper justice with mercy.
to soften or tone down.
to bring to a proper, suitable, or desirable state by or as by blending or admixture.
to moisten, mix, and work up into proper consistency, as clay or mortar.
Metallurgy. to impart strength or toughness to (steel or cast iron) by heating and cooling.
to produce internal stresses in (glass) by sudden cooling from low red heat; toughen.
to tune (a keyboard instrument, as a piano, organ, or harpsichord) so as to make the tones available in different keys or tonalities.
to modify (color) by mixing with a medium.
Archaic. to combine or blend in due proportions.
Archaic. to pacify.
verb (used without object)
to be or become tempered.

before 1000; (v.) Middle English tempren, Old English temprian < Latin temperāre to divide or proportion duly, temper; (noun) Middle English: proportion, derivative of the v.

temperable, adjective
temperability, noun
temperer, noun
nontemperable, adjective
retemper, verb (used with object)
untemperable, adjective
untempering, adjective

1. nature, condition. 2. humor. See disposition. 3. irritation. 4. equanimity, coolness, composure. 10. See modify.
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2014.
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World English Dictionary
temper (ˈtɛmpə)
1.  a frame of mind; mood or humour: a good temper
2.  a sudden outburst of anger; tantrum
3.  a tendency to exhibit uncontrolled anger; irritability
4.  a mental condition of moderation and calm (esp in the phrases keep one's temper, lose one's temper, out of temper)
5.  the degree of hardness, elasticity, or a similar property of a metal or metal object
6.  to make more temperate, acceptable, or suitable by adding something else; moderate: he tempered his criticism with kindly sympathy
7.  to strengthen or toughen (a metal or metal article) by heat treatment, as by heating and quenching
8.  music
 a.  to adjust the frequency differences between the notes of a scale on (a keyboard instrument) in order to allow modulation into other keys
 b.  to make such an adjustment to the pitches of notes in (a scale)
9.  a rare word for adapt
10.  an archaic word for mix
[Old English temprian to mingle, (influenced by Old French temprer), from Latin temperāre to mix, probably from tempus time]

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
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Word Origin & History

late O.E. temprian "to bring to a proper or suitable state, to modify some excessive quality, to restrain within due limits," from L. temperare "to mix correctly, moderate, regulate, blend," usually described as from tempus "time, season" (of unknown origin), with a sense of "proper time or season,"
but the sense history is obscure. Meaning "to make (steel) hard and elastic" is from c.1381. Sense of "to tune the pitch of a musical instrument" is recorded from c.1300.

late 14c., "due proportion of elements or qualities," from temper (v.). The sense of "characteristic state of mind" is first recorded 1590s; that of "calm state of mind" in c.1600; and that of "angry state of mind" (for bad temper) in 1828. Meaning "degree of hardness and
resiliency in steel" is from late 15c.
Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper
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American Heritage
Medical Dictionary

temper tem·per (těm'pər)

  1. A state of mind or emotions; mood.

  2. A tendency to become easily angry or irritable.

  3. An outburst of rage.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary
Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Example sentences
On the other hand, there are grounds for the tempering of grief.
It is more of an academic display of the slow, cold tempering of human intellect in a spiritually sterile environment.
Additional tempering is also often needed to relieve material stresses and achieve the concomitant fatigue properties.
The accompanying review mentions your role in tempering the face of development
  over the past decade.
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