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city and administrative centre of Surkhandarya oblast (province), Uzbekistan, and a port of the Amu Darya (river) on the frontier of Afghanistan. The ancient town of Termez, a little to the north, flourished in the 1st century BC and was finally destroyed at the end of the 17th century AD. The present city originated as a Russian fort built in 1897 beside the small settlement of Pattagissar. It has registered some extremely high temperatures, the highest having been a temperature of 122 F (50 C) in July 1914. Termez has cotton ginneries, as well as food-processing and other light industries. The city and its environs have remains of a Buddhist monastery, ruined forts, and medieval mausoleums. Pop. (1991 est.) 90,400